Current situation of science and technology and in

2022-08-13
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Under the authorization of the French Ministry of foreign affairs, the French science and technology observation Institute compiled the December2006 version of the report on the status of science and technology in China. Although the report adopts some data that are not up-to-date or inaccurate, it still reflects the mainstream views of the European scientific and technological Council on China's scientific and technological development, and has a strong reference value for China's current active development of science and technology and the establishment of an independent innovation system

25 years ago, China was still a country with weak scientific and technological strength, but today it has stepped up its pace to complete the scientific and technological revolution. The Ministry of science and technology of China is mainly responsible for China's scientific and technological progress. Its purpose is to promote the sustainable development of the national economy, make science and technology occupy an important position in the process of economic development, significantly improve the overall level of China's science and technology and independent innovation ability, and ensure that China will enter the ranks of the world's leading countries in science and technology by 2020

The Chinese government began to implement the policy of scientific and technological revolution in 1978. The initial indicators were not fully achieved, but the achievements of the scientific and technological reform that rose again and developed rapidly in the late 1990s cannot be denied

China's scientific and technological reform has good fire prevention performance. The reform mainly revolves around four aspects: reforming the scientific and technological structure and its capital mode; Broaden the channels of scientific research funds and strengthen the team of scientific and technological personnel; Concentrate scientific and technological forces and optimize scientific research departments and priority areas; Increase the pace of China's scientific and technological opening to the outside world

China's scientific and technological reform initially imitated the Soviet model and absorbed the essence of the Western model. In this mode of lead screw drive and rack drive, scientific research funds are mainly used to improve scientific and technological competitiveness, especially in applied science projects and the development of high-tech and innovation capabilities. In addition, due to the continuous expansion of scientific research activities, universities, together with colleges of Sciences and other scientific research institutions, actively participate in the development process of scientific research and technology

the Chinese government has increased its investment in scientific research, which ranks third in the world (probably second at the end of 2006), second only to Japan and the United States. Since 1998, the annual scientific research investment has increased by 15%. China's dir/pib ratio reached 1.23% in 2004, but it is lower than the level of the United States. In 2004, there were 1.15 million people engaged in R & D in China, including 920000 researchers. China's human resources engaged in R & D are second only to the United States. China's scientific research personnel have increased by 25% since 2000

scientific researchers are recruited on the basis of merit, mainly in laboratories or scientific research institutions, and their scientific research activities are concentrated in priority areas determined by the state. The number of such laboratories is small. There are 163 key laboratories and more than a dozen universities, which are mainly concentrated in eastern China, so it is easy to quickly assemble the most cutting-edge scientific research equipment. Combined with Chinese scientific and technological personnel trained abroad, we can develop international scientific and technological cooperation with foreign countries, make up for gaps and backwardness, acquire knowledge and improve China's scientific research ability to reach the world level

although China's R & D investment is mainly aimed at applied science and the development of high and new technology (only 5.7% of domestic R & D investment is used for basic research), the number of papers published in world science journals in China has been greatly increased. Within five years, the number of articles published in world science journals in China has doubled. In 2004, China ranked fifth in the world in terms of the number of articles published in world science journals, with remarkable achievements. China has published 5% of the world's scientific and technological publications, second only to the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany, and is the leading country in influencing the effect of substitutes such as waste paper, wood pulp and finished black paper. This achievement is particularly remarkable in the fields of Material Science (Mathematics, physics, chemistry and science and Engineering), but it lags behind in the fields of medicine and life sciences. The number of scientific research papers published in China ranks first in the world, but the international visibility of its publications is relatively low, with an application index of 0.5, which is twice the average index of the world and the EU-25. But China has reached 0.7 in mathematics and engineering

in the field of technology, China has also taken a series of measures to make up for its backwardness. China has established a number of high-tech parks, some of which have indeed played an important role in the field of innovation. In order to make up for the backwardness, China is gradually providing preferential conditions for foreign investors to transfer their rights. China actively encourages foreign R & D institutions to establish Sino foreign cooperative R & D institutions or independent R & D institutions in China. This policy achieved great success in China in 2004. China has become the country with the third largest number of scientific research centers in the world, and more than 700 foreign scientific research centers have settled in China. The main reason for attracting the world scientific research center to settle in China is that there are a large number of professional and technical personnel. At the same time, they can enjoy the advantages of low labor costs, broad Chinese market, and opportunities to cooperate with local scientific research departments and universities. If we say that these research centers usually develop technology based on the needs of the Chinese market, they have now begun to innovate according to the Chinese market and aim at the international market to develop technology. Foreign investment in China is generally concentrated in the fields of information technology, communication technology, automobile manufacturing and chemical products

the number of patents applied for by China's independent intellectual property rights in Europe and the United States is not large, and the status of China's technology on the international stage is also very limited, but China has improved since 2001. In 2004, China applied for 0.9% of international and European patents, about 1200 applications, accounting for 0.4% of the patents issued by the United States, 630 patents, an increase of 125% over 1999. According to the statistics of the world intellectual property organization, China ranked 10th in the world in applying for PCT patents in 2005, accounting for 1.8% of the total number of applications. China hopes to improve its technological competitiveness in the priority areas determined by the state, especially in biomedicine, BTP household appliances and electronic appliances

the number of international co authored papers of Chinese scientists has shown a significant upward trend. In terms of their cooperation in publishing scientific works, China has become a major partner in scientific research in the world. This is mainly reflected in the number of articles published in international scientific journals in China in recent years, which is similar to the number of articles published in international scientific journals in Europe and the United States. The United States accounts for more than 1/3 of the world's published scientific research works, and it is also China's major scientific research partner

In addition, China has also carried out rich scientific and technological cooperation with its Asian neighbors. Japan is the second largest scientific and technological cooperation country of China, as well as Singapore, South Korea and other countries or regions. The scientific research works published with these countries account for 10% of the scientific research works published with foreign countries. At the same time, China also gives priority to cooperation with Australia and Canada, which also regard scientific and technological cooperation with China as the key countries of their international cooperation

in the past, the scientific and technological cooperation between EU countries and China has lagged slightly, but in recent years, some measures have made China participate in the big science programs of the EU and the world, such as the human genome project, the European Galileo project, the ITER project, the scientific research framework program of the 25 EU Member States, etc

there are only three countries in Europe, and Germany, Britain and France are among the top 10 cooperative countries of China. France is China's seventh scientific and technological cooperation country, and the scientific research papers published in cooperation with China account for only 5% of China's co authored papers, twice as many as Germany and Britain. China is the 16th scientific and technological cooperation country of France, and the scientific research papers jointly published with France account for only 2% of the French co authored papers. The scientific and technological cooperation between China and France has been at a relatively low level for a long time, but in recent years, the scientific and technological cooperation between China and France at the national and regional levels has been strengthened. Recently, the Chinese Academy of Sciences has signed scientific and technological cooperation agreements with major scientific research departments in France, such as the French scientific research center, the French Atomic Energy Commission, the French Institute of information and automation, the French Institute of health and health, the French Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the French Academy of Sciences, and so on. Over the past 10 years, several Sino French joint laboratories have been established, such as the Sino French Laboratory of information, automation and Applied Mathematics (LIAMA), the Sino French catalysis Laboratory (lfcc), the Sino French Laboratory of genetics and Life Sciences, and the Pasteur Institute in Shanghai

in terms of higher education cooperation, with the promotion of the two governments, and also under the trend of voluntary opening and internationalization of the education departments of both sides, the higher education departments of China and France are closely linked. At present, France is one of the countries in the world that admit Chinese students to avoid homogenization and low-level duplication at most, ranking sixth in the world, after the United States, Britain, Japan, Australia and Germany

in order to ensure that China is among the world's economic powers, China will continue to strive to strengthen its scientific research and innovation capabilities. Scientific research innovation is the source of wealth creation, and it is also an indispensable source of power to eliminate the current constraints on China's development, such as reducing energy consumption, environmental protection and health. In these aspects, EU countries can become important partners for China's cooperation. The scientific and technological cooperation between China and the 27 member states of the European Union should continue and be continuously strengthened in order to ensure that Europe will become an important partner of China, the world's major scientific and technological power in the 21st century. (end)

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