Current situation of magnesium industry and develo

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Abstract: This paper introduces the current situation of magnesium resources, production and consumption of raw magnesium in China, analyzes the market potential of magnesium application in China and the advantages and disadvantages of magnesium industry, and introduces the achievements of magnesium alloy development technology and industrialization in China in recent years. The further development of China's magnesium industry needs to solve the problem of increasing research and development and environmental protection in the field of magnesium alloy deep processing

1. preface

at the end of the 20th century, safety and environmental protection laws and regulations have become increasingly stringent, and the requirements for weight reduction and energy saving of modern vehicles are rising. Magnesium alloy, as the lightest metal material in industrial application and good damping and shock absorption performance, has become the preferred material for vehicle lightweight. In addition, magnesium alloys have excellent properties such as high specific strength, thermal conductivity, electromagnetic shielding and environmental compatibility. They can meet the light, thin, miniaturized, highly integrated and strict environmental protection requirements of 3C products (computers, communications, consumer electronics), and are widely used in the information industry. With the breakthrough of the two bottlenecks of technology and price, the global consumption of magnesium alloy has increased sharply, and the scope of application has been expanding. It is becoming the third largest metal engineering material after steel and aluminum, known as "green engineering material in the 21st century"

Since the 1990s, China's magnesium industry has also achieved rapid development and become a major magnesium producer in the world. China's magnesium resource reserves, magnesium metal output and export volume rank first in the world. Coupled with China's huge market and the trend of global manufacturing industry transferring to China, the development advantages of China's magnesium industry have gradually emerged. People have expressed more attention to the prospects of magnesium application in the Chinese market and the progress of magnesium technology

2. The current situation of China's magnesium industry and the opportunities and challenges it faces

(1) China's magnesium resources and the current situation of original magnesium production and consumption

China's magnesium resources are therefore very rich, with proven magnesite reserves of about 2.7 billion tons, dolomite reserves of more than 4 billion tons, and 33 salt lakes in Qinghai Qaidam basin contain about 3.15 billion tons of magnesium salt. The development and utilization of potassium and magnesium resources in Qinghai Salt Lake has been included in the major industrial project of the western development, and it is planned to build a plant with an annual output of 50000 tons of magnesium alloy

In 1957, China introduced the chlorination and electrolysis process of magnesite from the former Soviet Union, built a 3000t/a magnesium workshop in Fushun Aluminum Plant and put it into production, and China began to have a magnesium industry. Since 1986, China's Pijiang magnesium smelting industry has developed rapidly under the pull and competition of the market, and became a net exporter of magnesium in 1992. At present, the production capacity of magnesium in China has accounted for 3/4 of the world, and the output of raw magnesium accounts for more than 40% of the global output, of which more than 80% are exported at low prices as primary raw materials. The main reason is that the deep processing capacity of magnesium in China is weak, and the output of magnesium alloy die castings in 2000 was only 4000 tons. However, the magnesium alloy industry in Taiwan has developed rapidly. At present, more than 30 enterprises have used internationally advanced equipment to produce accessories for electronic products [1]

according to statistics, China currently has more than 100 original magnesium production enterprises, including 22 with an annual production capacity of more than 3000 tons and more than 50 with an annual production capacity of more than 3000 tons. Minhe magnesium plant is the only electrolytic magnesium plant currently in production in China, with a total capacity of 7000t/A. other enterprises use silicon thermal production. The number of production enterprises is large, small and scattered, the technology is backward, and the environmental pollution is serious. It can be seen that there are serious structural contradictions in the domestic magnesium industry, and there is an urgent need to adjust and upgrade the industrial structure

since 2000, the international anti-dumping and the adverse market situation have forced some enterprises to change their business ideas, change the production and export structure of products, and adapt to the market, while others have closed down or are in a state of semi shutdown due to various reasons; At the same time, due to the attention and support of the government and research departments, the domestic magnesium industry has set off a corresponding R & D and application heat. For example, the Ministry of science and technology has integrated the comprehensive utilization of magnesium resources and the development of magnesium materials with the western development? quot; fifteen "During this period, in the important fields of high-tech and industrialization development, key scientific and technological research topics were identified in the production of magnesium raw materials, magnesium alloys for automobiles, electronic materials, etc. other research plans also actively supported the research in the magnesium field and accelerated the process of scientific research and development, so as to stimulate domestic demand and solve many existing problems through product structure adjustment. The government also put forward higher requirements for the sustainable development of the magnesium industry, and some Due to serious pollution, enterprises were ordered to stop production and transformation, and the deadline for reaching the standard was set. At that time, enterprises that failed to meet the standard will be forced to withdraw from the market. Therefore, China's magnesium industry has made good progress in energy conservation, consumption reduction and cost reduction through technological progress and strengthened management in recent years

(2) analysis of domestic magnesium alloy market potential

with the enhancement of people's awareness of environmental protection, the consumption market of green products is growing rapidly. A survey sponsored by the China Association of environmental workers from January to March 2002 showed that the level of environmental awareness of the Chinese public has greatly improved. The vast majority of respondents considered various factors related to environmental protection when buying goods. 68% of respondents were willing to increase taxes for environmental protection, and 65% of respondents were willing to buy goods 20% more expensive than the general price for environmental protection [2]. Therefore, enterprises invest a lot in developing green products and establishing a green image. Magnesium alloy, as the most eye-catching green engineering material in the 21st century, has become the focus of investment and research of enterprises all over the world

in the process of the development and application of magnesium alloy products, the first developed forming technology is die casting. The domestic die casting industry has developed rapidly in line with the international trend. The development of magnesium die casting industry in the mainland is mainly driven by means of transportation (cars, motorcycles, bicycles, trains). The development of magnesium alloy in Taiwan is driven by 3C products and is expanding to other products. Some Taiwan's magnesium alloy die casting industry has been transferred to the mainland, It also promotes the application of magnesium alloys

China is carrying out the structural adjustment of automotive products. The adjustment direction is to increase the proportion of cars in the total number of cars, and replace non environmental vehicles with low emission, low pollution and energy-saving green vehicles. By 2005, the proportion of car output in the total output will be increased from 29.2% in 2000 to more than 35%. In 2005, we will strive to reduce the fuel consumption per 100 kilometers of various models by an average of 10%. In recent years, the government has increased the research and development of electric vehicles, and magnesium alloys will be widely used in the field of domestic vehicles

according to Volkswagen, at present, the amount of magnesium used in each vehicle is only about 25 kg. In the next five years, the amount of magnesium used in each vehicle can reach kg. According to the demand of 1million cars in 2005, and the average magnesium consumption of each car is 2.0kg, the consumption of magnesium alloy in mainland cars in 2005 will reach 20000 tons

China's motorcycle industry has been a rapidly growing industrial sector in China for more than a decade. It has been developed under the environment of market economy. It has strong vitality and adaptability, and its price has been accepted by ordinary consumers. For example, the price of a 70cc motorcycle is about 400 US dollars; A motorcycle with 125cc displacement costs about $650. According to the China Automobile Industry Association, 125 motorcycle manufacturers nationwide produced 12.367 million motorcycles and sold 12.1305 million motorcycles in 2001. The overall trend is that the market demand is maintained at about 12million vehicles, and the export volume accounts for about 15%

it is an inevitable trend to improve the technical content and service performance of existing motorcycles, promote the upgrading of motorcycle products and green environmental protection. By 2005, the number of motorcycles in China will reach 10000, and the demand in that year will be 10000. Based on the average magnesium consumption of each motorcycle of 1.0kg, the consumption of magnesium alloy for motorcycles in Chinese Mainland will reach 12000 tons in 2005

at present, the output of non traffic motorcycles in Japan has accounted for more than 20% of its total output. In China, the demand for motorcycles for non transportation purposes, such as off-road vehicles, motorcycles for snow and sand beaches, and motorcycles for golf courses, is growing day by day. This huge market has been valued by motorcycle manufacturers

in 1999, China's relevant R & D units and bicycle and its parts manufacturers began to invest in the development of magnesium alloy bicycles. At present, the weight of magnesium alloy bicycles can be reduced to less than 8kg. Bicycle manufacturers in Taiwan have widely used magnesium alloy in sports cars, mountain bikes, folding cars and other high-end vehicles. The weight of folding magnesium alloy bicycles can be reduced to 6.4kg

only considering that the frame and two wheels are made of magnesium alloy instead of aluminum alloy, the weight can be reduced from the original 3.12kg to 2.08kg, and the weight can be reduced to 1.04kg. For bicycle riders, it is not only convenient to use, but also the vibration will be reduced, which will bring more comfortable enjoyment [5]

China is a large country of bicycles, with more than 500 manufacturers, 450million social ownership, an annual production capacity of about 65million, an annual export of 22.7 million and a domestic sales of 20million. Therefore, the demand for magnesium alloy in the bicycle industry will also be considerable

after 2000, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan have established production bases for a large number of electronic products such as notebook computers, mobile computers and desktop computers in mainland China. Most of these products are made of magnesium alloy die castings for surgery, which has greatly promoted the development of magnesium alloy die casting industry in China

the prediction of magnesium alloy consumption in Chinese Mainland is shown in Figure 1. It can be seen that the market of magnesium alloy die castings for domestic demand in Chinese Mainland is remarkable. It is estimated that the demand for magnesium alloy consumption in the transportation industry in 2005 and 2010 will be 35500 tons and 176400 tons respectively, with an increase of 10.4 times and 51.9 times compared with 3400 tons in 2000. As for 3C products in the electronic industry, it is expected that the application of magnesium alloy will reach 1.62 tons in 2005 and 3.15 tons in 2010. In addition to these two industries, the consumption of other industries will also grow rapidly. In terms of the market prospect of export supply, the global consumption of magnesium alloy castings is more considerable. Therefore, the application prospect of magnesium alloy is encouraging, both for domestic demand in the mainland and for export supply [6]

Figure 1 prediction of China's magnesium alloy Market

(3) advantages and disadvantages of China's magnesium industry development

advantages of China's Magnesium Industry Development: rich magnesium resources, low-cost raw material supply and labor advantages; Huge domestic demand market space; The overseas market is vast and the potential demand is large; The favorable conditions in terms of policy include: first, the country will continue to implement a prudent monetary policy, focus on expanding domestic demand and stimulating consumption growth; Second, the state is determined to continue to rectify and standardize the market economic order; The third is the promotion of the Chinese government's national policies of rejuvenating the country through science and technology, western development and the tenth five year plan

deficiencies in the development of China's Magnesium Industry: Chinese Mainland lacks domestic capital, commercial management is not yet mature, and technology is relatively backward. However, Hong Kong and Taiwan can make up for the lack of funds and management. In addition, they can adopt the way of combining production, study and research or jointly developing products with domestic and foreign enterprises, which is conducive to technological innovation and leapfrog development

3. China's magnesium alloy development technology [7]

since the launch of the national "Tenth Five Year Plan" major scientific and technological research project "magnesium alloy development, application and industrialization", it has attracted nearly 600million yuan from all aspects. 31 scientific research institutions and enterprises have jointly invested in the research, development and industrialization of magnesium alloys, including the Institute of metals, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing General Institute of nonferrous metals research, Tsinghua University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Dongfeng Motor Corporation Four research institutes, seven universities and 20 enterprises including China FAW Group Corporation, Chengdu Engine (Group) Co., Ltd. and Lijin technology group directly participated in the implementation of the project

at present, it has been formed from the high-quality magnesium alloy pressure testing machine

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