Current situation of logistics pallet application

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The application status of logistics pallets in China

generally speaking, pallets usually refer to flat pallets that can be used in the process of intermodal transportation. As a kind of mechanized and unitized storage and transportation appliance, pallet has a history of more than 100 years since it was introduced in Europe and America in the second half of the 19th century. With the maturing of road, railway, water transportation, air transportation, multimodal transportation and other transportation modes, the application of intermodal flat pallets is becoming more and more widely. Pallet transportation has become one of the three transportation modes recognized worldwide, which are in line with container transportation and hump transportation. It has been highly concerned and valued by countries all over the world to conduct impact experiments on metal materials in accordance with the national standard gb/t229 (2) 007 metal Charpy pendulum impact test method. According to the data released by China Logistics Information Center, the total cost of social logistics in China currently accounts for about 21.4% of GDP, more than 10 percentage points away from developed countries. How to shorten this gap, reduce the total cost of logistics in China, improve the efficiency of logistics operation, and promote the standardization and socialized application of pallets is an important link that can not be ignored

The application level of pallets is an important symbol of the development of modern logistics. Palletization has brought new changes to the global plastic machine market pattern; The upgrading of industrial structure and the continuous improvement of product quality are effective means to rapidly improve the handling efficiency and control the logistics management process

generally speaking, the total amount of pallets owned by a country is one of the symbols to measure the level of logistics modernization operation in this country. Relevant data shows that the total number of pallets in the United States is about 1.5 billion to 2 billion, with 7-8 per capita; Japan has nearly 1billion pallets, with 4-5 pallets per capita; The application of pallets in South Korea is similar to that in neighboring Japan, with a large total of 1.1 pallets per capita; Palletized transportation is also widely used in Australia, Europe and other countries and regions. Compared with foreign countries, the application level of pallets in China lags far behind. According to the survey of relevant industry organizations, by the end of 2002, the total number of pallets in China was conservatively estimated to be about 50-70 million. According to this statistics, even if it increases at the rate of 20million pallets per year, by the end of 2004, the total number of pallets in China was only about 100million, less than 0.1 per capita

from the perspective of use, the vast majority of pallets in China have not formed a smooth and reasonable turnover and circulation mechanism. The scope of use of pallets is limited to the handling operations within the warehouse and between transportation links. Even for enterprises engaged in logistics services, pallets are also limited to the internal turnover of enterprises. Because the products from manufacturers, distributors, retailers to end-users in the supply chain need to replace several pallets to realize transportation and storage, after many times of pallet replacement, the operation efficiency is greatly reduced, and the additional cost of products is greatly increased. At present, except for large-scale and advanced production enterprises, the proportion of material handling fees in the total cost of products in general enterprises is as high as 40%, which is greatly related to the low level of pallet application in China

also wasted available resources; The investment in combustion treatment is large. According to the figures released by the authoritative organization of pallets abroad, a pallet can save an average of more than 500 US dollars in storage, loading and unloading and transportation costs in the circulation of the products it carries from being put into use to being scrapped, which is equivalent to dozens of times its own cost. However, this requires a prerequisite, that is, the pallet must be recycled for many times in the whole society. A prominent contradiction in the use of pallets in China is that most of the pallets used for product circulation end their service life with the transfer of product ownership, which is basically one-off. This causes many production enterprises to restart a large amount of funds every year for the manufacture, purchase and use of pallets. This part of the cost is added to the value of the goods carried, and the cost of goods is greatly increased. Because the application of pallets is mainly limited to the scope of internal operations of enterprises, the recycling rate of pallets in China is very low, and the pace of developing the socialized application of pallets is very slow

in South Korea, in order to improve the utilization rate of pallets, the government adopts the method of giving compensation to users, and vigorously advocates the use of plastic pallets that are not easy to damage and whose raw materials can be recycled. In China, wooden pallets account for about 90% of the total pallets, plastic pallets account for about 8%, and steel, plastic wood and other materials account for about 2%, while a timber tree can only produce 6 standard pallets at most. The main reason why Chinese enterprises produce and use wooden pallets in large quantities is that the price of steel and plastic pallets is high. If they cannot be recycled repeatedly, it is difficult to reduce the marginal cost of enterprises. Because most wooden pallets are disposable, the material requirements are not strict, and the price is low, so it is easier for enterprises to accept them. Therefore, vigorously promoting the socialized application of pallets and improving the recycling efficiency of pallets can not only reduce the storage and transportation costs of enterprise products and improve the efficiency of logistics operation, but also have great significance for protecting China's ecological environment and saving natural resources

the social application of pallets must be based on the standardization of pallets. If pallets are only used as a bearing tool for internal storage, loading and unloading and handling operations, or even as a part of product packaging, rather than being used repeatedly in the process of product circulation, producers can produce and use product pallets with different specifications and standards according to the actual situation of the enterprise and the external specifications of the products, Every enterprise can also have pallet standards that are different from those of other enterprises. However, the pallet operation we advocate is to use pallets as storage and transportation units to realize intermodal transportation of goods between different enterprises and regions by using different storage and transportation modes, that is, to vigorously improve the social application level of pallets. The various pallet specifications can only reduce the efficiency of intermodal transportation, hinder the development of pallet transportation, and cause a great waste of logistics resources. In order to realize the socialized application of pallets, the specifications of intermodal pallets must be unified and standardized within a certain range or region. Standardization is the premise and basis for realizing the socialization of pallets. First, the pallet standards formulated by the international organization for Standardization (ISO) have been reviewed by the iso/tc51 pallet Standardization Technical Committee in stages for many times, The international organization for standardization has revised the standard of ISO6780 "main dimensions and tolerances of intermodal flat pallets" in 2003 × 1000mm,1200 × 800mm,1219 × 1016mm (i.e. 48in × 40in),1140 × These catalytic reactions are all used on the basis of high-yield chemical products, adding 1100 × 1100mm,1067 × There are two specifications of 1067mm, and there are six current international standards for pallets

the coexistence of six global pallet standard specifications is not an ideal result. The root cause is that each specification in ISO6780 has a different origin, which is the contradictory reflection of the interests of different regions and different national groups on the pallet standard issue. Therefore, although it is the common aspiration of the international logistics community to unify the specifications of intermodal flat pallets and minimize logistics costs, in order to achieve this requirement, it is necessary to balance the interests of various regions or national groups on the pallet issue, which is almost impossible to achieve in a short period of time

the original international standard specification is only 1200 series (i.e. 1200 × 1000mm and 1200 × 800mm), which originated in the European continent. It is generally believed that it is based on the European 600mm × The unified packaging standard size of 400mm was formulated, which was soon accepted by all European countries and became the basic specification for pallet manufacturing and use in Europe. However, some western countries such as the United States habitually use English units. At its strong request, ISO added a standard specification of 48in based on the 1200mm series of international standards in 1988 × 40in. In fact, this specification is the same as 1200 × 1000mm has little difference, and the difference between length and width is less than two centimeters. It can be said to be the British version of 1200mm series. However, the 1200mm series has its irreparable disadvantages, which do not match the international standard for the internal width of Marine Containers (about 2330 mm) formulated later. This series of pallets can only be stacked crisscross in the container, and can not make the most of the space

in the same year, another square 1140mm was added to ISO6780 × 1140mm pallet, which is generally considered to be the best match with the container size. 1140mm × The establishment of 1140mm specification can be said to be the European countries represented by 1200mm series, and vigorously promote 1100 mm × 1100 mm tray (T11 for short) is an intermediate product of long-term debate between Japan and South Korea. In order to make full use of the bottom flat area of containers and promote the unification of T11 and 1200mm series, the pallet circles of both sides finally agreed to increase 1100mm to 1140mm. It was first listed in iso3676 "dimensions of packaging unit goods" in 1982, and then included in ISO6780 "main dimensions and tolerances of intermodal general flat pallets" in 1988. However, the 1140mm specification has not changed the international standardization process of T11. With the long-term and unremitting efforts of Japan and South Korea pallet standardization organization, T11 finally became another international standard specification last year. Among the six international standard specifications, there is also a square tray, which is 1067mm commonly used in Australia × 1067mm(42in × 42In), which has the same advantages as T11. It is widely used in Australia and represents the development level of pallet standardization in Australia

since the standards of pallet specifications represent the economic interests of different regions and national groups, these specifications cannot compromise and yield to each other. ISO has great difficulties in unifying the specifications of the global intermodal pallets. Finally, it can only adopt an inclusive attitude and juxtapose the specifications of the six pallets into a global universal international standard

II. Current situation of pallet standardization in China

equivalent adoption of international standards has always been the principle and preferred way of formulating standards in China. In 1996, the Scientific Research Institute of the Ministry of communications proposed to adopt iso6780:1988 "main dimensions and tolerances of intermodal general flat pallets" as the national standard of pallets in China. The original National Bureau of Technical Supervision approved and issued this equivalent standard with the serial number of gb/t standard. However, this standard does not completely solve the problem of pallet specification unification in the process of intermodal transportation in China, and the further revision of China's pallet standard is still under research and exploration

these studies and explorations mainly focus on the following three issues: first, it is not the most economical and reasonable to continue to adopt international standards equivalently. As mentioned above, the basic condition for realizing palletized intermodal transportation and storage in a certain area is the unification of pallet specifications. Only unified standard specifications can reduce loading and unloading operations, improve operation efficiency, and achieve the purpose of reducing logistics costs. The coexistence of six specifications in ISO6780 is caused by different national groups or regions vigorously promoting pallet specifications suitable for themselves. Due to the strong economic interests behind each specification, such a result is unscientific and unreasonable. Therefore, when formulating China's pallet standards, whether to continue to adopt international standards equivalently, or to focus on promoting one or two pallet specification standards applicable to social recycling according to China's actual situation and the needs of international trade, we also need experts and scholars from relevant parties to conduct in-depth research and the continuous practice of all users in order to draw a correct conclusion


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