The hottest inventory of the great changes in prin

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This year marks the 30th anniversary of reform and opening up. Over the past 30 years, under the guidance of the party's reform and opening-up policy, China's socialist revolution and construction have made brilliant achievements, and earth shaking changes have taken place in all walks of life. Like other industries, our printing industry has undergone remarkable changes

recall that 30 years ago, due to the ten-year civil strife created by the gang of four, China's national economy was on the verge of collapse, and the publishing and printing industry was even more seriously damaged. A large number of printing plants are closed, and the remaining printing plant equipment is very old, the technology is extremely backward, and the production capacity is seriously insufficient. In 1978, there were only 11211 printing plants of all kinds in China (now 180000). When the developed countries have popularized Laser Phototypesetting, electronic color separation, high-speed offset printing, bookbinding mechanization and linkage, China's printing technology still stays in the old production processes such as manual lead printing, backward lead printing and manual bookbinding. The technology is backward and the production efficiency is low, which is far from meeting the needs of printing books, newspapers and periodicals. There are difficulties in publishing books The situation that it is difficult to buy books simply cannot meet the needs of the cultural life of the people

in the face of the situation of a hundred wastes waiting for prosperity, the national publishing administration, which was in charge of publishing, printing and distribution at that time, on the one hand, formulated policies and measures to mobilize all positive factors and actively develop the printing industry, on the other hand, starting with the development of printing technology, sent printing investigation missions abroad to visit and investigate developed countries, restored the contact with the outside world that had been interrupted for more than ten years, and learned about the development of printing technology in the world, We have seen the gap between China and the world's advanced level, broadened our horizons and found the direction of our efforts. At the same time, under the condition that the state capital and foreign exchange are very scarce, it has successively allocated limited funds to introduce advanced equipment such as laser Phototypesetter, electronic color separation machine, electronic engraving machine, multi-color offset printing machine, binding linkage machine, etc., which will be exempted from import tax upon application. In fact, these imported machines are only some prototypes, but they are of great significance, setting a model for the development of printing technology, and also a powerful criticism of the far right line of the gang of four

after several years of hard work, China's national economy has gradually recovered, the requirements of the people's material and cultural life are increasing, and the contradiction between the difficulty of publishing and buying books and the insufficient printing production capacity and backward printing technology is becoming increasingly prominent. It is difficult to solve this prominent contradiction by relying solely on the competent printing department. This outstanding contradiction has attracted the attention of the central leadership. After a period of gestation, on June 6, 1983, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council made the decision on strengthening publishing work, which pointed out the direction and put forward important tasks for the development of publishing and printing. At the same time, the State Economic Commission and the National Planning Commission were instructed to establish a printing technology and equipment coordination group, including heads of publishing, machinery, electronics, chemical industry, light industry and other departments, to uniformly lead and coordinate the transformation of printing technology. In addition, 200million yuan was allocated to support the transformation of printing technology and promote the transformation of printing technology from point to area. The printing technology and equipment imported by the units listed in the key technological transformation projects will be exempted from import tax

the Central Committee's "decision on strengthening publishing work" has greatly encouraged and spurred the publishing department, and the specific measures taken have given substantial and strong support to the transformation of printing technology. Therefore, the upsurge of updating and transforming printing technology is rapidly set off in the national printing industry. In the seventh and eighth five year plan, the printing technology and equipment coordination group has always adhered to the 16 character technical transformation policy of phototypesetting, electronic color separation, high-speed offset printing and binding linkage, followed preferential policies and measures, and continuously increased the investment in printing technology transformation funds (from allocation to loan), increasing the amount from 200 million yuan to more than 1 billion yuan (each five-year plan); The imported equipment of technical transformation projects is still exempted from the chemical tax of import rather than standard brand. With the support of the above policies, the transformation of printing technology has set off a new upsurge after another, making China's printing technology enter a period of rapid development from the recovery period. The number of imported foreign advanced equipment has increased year by year, effectively improving the level of printing technology in China. According to rough statistics, from, that is, the 20 years of reform and opening up, the country has introduced about 500 electronic color separators, more than 1000 multi-color offset printing machines, and more than 60 binding linkage lines. Through the introduction of foreign advanced technology, the domestic printing machine manufacturing industry is also a good promotion. For example, at the beginning of reform and opening up, the foreign laser phototypesetting system once prevailed in China, but it was not long before it was replaced by the laser phototypesetting system of founder of Peking University. The technical level of the multicolor offset printing machine developed by beiren and Shanghai man-machine and the binding machine developed by Shanghai stapling machinery factory has been greatly improved and widely used in the majority of printing enterprises. The transformation of printing technology for more than ten years has brought epoch-making changes to China's printing technology

the typesetting of books and newspapers has developed from manual typesetting and typesetting, which have been used for hundreds of years, equipped with clearly marked express package recycling retention devices along the community business points, to laser Phototypesetting, which has realized the integration of graphic and graphic typesetting, greatly improved the production efficiency of typesetting, and made a revolution in typesetting technology

color plate making has developed from photographic plate making, which has been used for hundreds of years, to electronic color separation plate making, combined plate making, and now to direct plate making. As of September, 2007, 1049 direct plate making systems have been imported across the country, making the color map plate making technology develop rapidly

The printing of books and newspapers has developed from lead printing, which has been used for hundreds of years, to offset printing and color printing, which has revolutionized China's printing technology, from the era of lead and fire to the era of light and electricity

binding has developed from manual or stand-alone binding to mechanized and linkage binding, which has got rid of a lot of heavy physical labor and improved production efficiency

the publishing and printing technology of newspapers has developed faster. It has taken the lead in fully realizing laser Phototypesetting, high-speed offset printing, information resource connection, and layout satellite transmission, greatly improving the timeliness of publicity

In the 21st century, in order to meet the requirements of China's entry into the WTO, China has implemented a more open policy, strictly fulfilled the commitments of China's entry into the WTO protocol, further opened the market, significantly reduced import tariffs, attracted foreign investment in China, and encouraged domestic printing machine enterprises to sell their products abroad. The specific policy measures are:

further open the market and expand the opening up efforts

before the reform and opening up, there are few export printing equipment, just buy a few prototypes. After the reform and opening up, the import and export goods have gradually increased, and the import and export tariff items formulated by the General Administration of customs every year have increased year by year. By 1998, the tariff items of imported printing equipment had reached more than 20, increased to 32 After China's accession to the WTO, increased to 59 in 2008, and also increased 14 tax items with provisional tax rates. This shows that China is allowed to import more and more printing products, and the scope is becoming wider and wider. This also shows that China has further opened its markets to the world and expanded its opening-up efforts

simplify approval procedures and delegate management authority

before China's accession to the WTO, sheet fed offset printing machines and web offset printing machines have been managed as specific products for a long time. The management level is high (its import license is issued by the Ministry of Commerce), there are many approval links, and the approval time is long; In addition to the approval of the local management department where the enterprise is located, it also has to go to Beijing for approval, which is a bit costly

after China joined the WTO in 2002, the former Ministry of foreign trade and Economic Cooperation (the Ministry of Commerce changed to the Ministry of Commerce after a relatively short period of affirmation of national industry standards for products) and the General Administration of Customs jointly issued announcements [2002] No. 62, [2003] No. 71 and [2004] No. 94, which listed products in eight categories, including flat sheet offset printing machines and web offset printing machines, The products that were later expanded to 11 catalogs were changed from the original management mode of specific products to the management of the catalogue of mechanical and electrical products with automatic import license. This major change has changed the import license of products in 11 catalogues, such as offset printing machines, from being issued by the Ministry of foreign trade and Economic Cooperation (now the Ministry of Commerce) to being issued by the import and export office of mechanical and electrical products of the province, autonomous region and municipality directly under the Central Government where the enterprise is located. In this way, the management power is decentralized, the declaration procedures are simplified, the efficiency is improved, the working time is shortened, and it is convenient for enterprises to import equipment

import tariffs have been reduced year by year

after China's accession to the WTO, tariffs on imported printing equipment have been reduced year by year. Take offset press as an example. Before joining the WTO, the import tariff was 22% in 2001. After joining the WTO, the import tariff fell to 14.8% in 2002, 12.4% in 2003, 10% in 2004, and 120% in four years, much lower than the average level of 15% in developing countries. At the same time, tariff and value-added tax are exempted for the import of some technical equipment with high technical content and which cannot reach the advanced level of foreign countries. This is rare in the world

the implementation of the above policies has promoted the import of foreign advanced printing equipment. Take the offset press for example, 645 sets were imported in 2001, 785 sets in 2002, 933 sets in 2003, 1052 sets in 2004, 1135 sets in 2005, 1031 sets in 2006 and 1128 sets in 2007

After China's accession to the WTO, the Ministry of Commerce revised the catalogue for the guidance of foreign investment industries. At the same time, the relevant departments adopted a series of preferential policies to encourage foreign businessmen to come to China to set up Sino foreign joint ventures, Sino foreign cooperation and wholly foreign-owned enterprises (hereinafter referred to as "three capital enterprises"). The main policy measures adopted are:

1 Implement the preferential policy of two exemptions and three reductions. That is, after the foreign-funded enterprise is put into operation and makes profits, it will be exempted from income tax for two years, and the enterprise income tax will be halved for the next three years. This greatly reduces the risk of foreign investment

2. Foreign investors who are allowed to invest in packaging, decoration and printing enterprises may apply for sole proprietorship and joint ventures controlled by foreign investors

3. Foreign funded enterprises that allow 100% export of printed matter will be exempted from tariff and value-added tax on imported printing equipment for their own use

4. Foreign funded enterprises with book printing licenses are allowed to undertake domestic book printing tasks upon approval

5. Formulate unit consumption standards for printing and processing trade to facilitate the import and export of foreign-funded enterprises. Before and after joining the WTO, unit consumption standards for processing trade such as books and newspapers, children's books, toy color boxes, shoe boxes, cigarette boxes, film boxes have been formulated, which greatly facilitates the import and export work of foreign-funded enterprises

the adoption of the above-mentioned policies and measures has continuously mobilized the enthusiasm of foreign investors to invest in printing enterprises in China. After 2004, the industrial examination and approval power of foreign investors to invest in printing enterprises in China was delegated to provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, creating more favorable conditions for foreign investors to invest in printing enterprises in China. So far, foreign investors have invested in nearly 3000 printing enterprises in China

the adoption of the above more open policies has attracted foreign investors to set up foreign-funded enterprises in China, promoted the exchange of printing technology between China and foreign countries, especially the introduction of high and new technology. Foreign funded enterprises have brought advanced technology, advanced management, high-quality and high-tech add-on business. Of course, it has also brought market competition, which has brought China's printing technology to a new level. Now it can be said that the most advanced technology and equipment in the world are basically available in China, and high-quality printing products emerge in endlessly, and are continuously sent to all parts of the world.

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